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Spotlight on: Vaccination Protocols

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By Professor Richard B Ford DVM MS and Professor Michael Day BSc BVMS(Hons) PhD DSc Dip1ECVP FASM FRCPath FRCVS.

Introduction

  • Vaccination is an essential part of a healthcare program for domestic pets. The ideal strategy maximizes beneficial effects of vaccination while minimizing risks. This means ensuring each individual receives only the most appropriate vaccinations, and that these vaccines are effective.
  • The immunogenicity of vaccines can be compromised by poor storage or inappropriate administration. In order to maintain efficacy vaccines must be stored in appropriate conditions:
    • Store under refrigeration at 2-8°C .
    • Do not freeze.
    • Protect from light.
    • Avoid prolonged or repetitive exposure to high ambient temperatures.
    • Once reconstituted (converted from dry to liquid form), vaccine should be used within 1 hour or it should be discarded)
  • The potency of many vaccines can be reduced by exposure to high temperatures for just a few hours.



All vaccines should be stored in the refrigerator until used.

  • The technique of vaccination is also important, eg the skin should not be cleaned with disinfectants before injection. Wiping the area with a wet swab is suggested.
  • Only administer vaccine by the route(s) recommended by the manufacturer. Some agents given by the incorrect route may cause clinical disease, eg intranasal Bordetella bronchipseptica vaccine administered subcutaneously.
  • Several types of vaccines are available for protecting cats against various bacteria and viruses that cause infectious respiratory disease. Intranasal vaccines are available that provide rapid onset of immunity against both bacterial ( Bordetella bronchiseptica ) and viruses (feline herpesvirus-1 and calicivirus). The specific vaccine selected for administration should be determined by the risk for exposure unique to the individual cat.
  • The immune competence of the individual cat receiving vaccination is important in ensuring a protective immune response results from vaccination. Immunogenicity of a vaccine can be affected by poor health/nutrition, concurrent drug therapy, eg immunosuppressive agents or hyperimmune serum) and stress.
  • For all vaccinations there are a number of important considerations to maximize vaccine efficacy while reducing risk of adverse effects:
    • Vaccinate healthy animals only.
    • When feasible, kittens should avoid contact with other cats for at least 7 days following the last dose of the initial series to allow time for a protective immune response to develop.
    • Avoid vaccinating pregnant animals.
    • If a pregnant queen must be vaccinated, use of inactivated (killed) vaccine is recommended.
  • In any population of animals, even with the strictest attention to correct administration, a small number of individuals may fail to respond to any vaccine.
  • Chronic inflammation is a likely contributing factor in the development of feline injection site sarcoma (FISS). Veterinarians are encouraged to avoid use of adjuvant-containing vaccine that may induce a chronic inflammatory reaction at or near the injection site.

Protocol factors

Before vaccination consider:

  • The vaccine itself, ie which vaccines are indicated at which stage of life.
  • The environment for which a vaccine is most appropriate, eg catteries, animal shelters, household pets etc.
  • Vaccination protocol, timing, boosters, age, route of administration (intranasal, SC, etc).
  • Known vaccine adverse reactions.

Note:


Kittens should be vaccinated at intervals of 3-4 weeks until 16-20 weeks of age to avoid vaccine interference from Maternally-Derived Antibody.

Vaccines by indication

See Feline vaccination - initial series table .

Feline parvovirus (panleukopenia)

  • The feline parvovirus (FPV, or feline panleukopenia virus) vaccine is produced from virus grown in cell line tissue culture.

  • Two types of feline parvovirus (FPV, or feline panleukopenia virus) vaccines are available:
    • 1. Attenuated (modified-live) virus available as a lyophilized (ie freeze-dried), non-adjuvanted product that must be reconstituted with an appropriate diluent prior to use, or
    • 2. Inactivated (killed) virus available as a liquid product that contains adjuvant. It is recommended that attenuated, combination FPV vaccines be administered within 1 hour following reconstitution or the dose should be discarded.
  • Attenuated (modified live virus, MLV) FPV vaccines are more immunogenic and less inflammatory than adjuvanted, inactivated (killed) vaccines. Attenuated vaccines are generally recommended over inactivated vaccines.
  • Inactivated (killed) FPV vaccines are only indicated for administration to pregnant queens and cats known to be retrovirus positive (FeLV and/or FIV).
  • In some countries, intranasal FPV (modified-live virus) vaccines are available.
  • Intranasal FPV vaccines may not be as effective as parenterally administered vaccines, especially in cats with concurrent upper respiratory signs (nasal mucus discharge/sneezing). It is recommended that cats receiving intranasal FPV vaccine also receive a dose of FPV vaccine labelled for parenteral administration to insure protection against this serious systemic infection.
  • Vaccination against FPV is indicated for all cats. All cats are potentially at risk of infection although disease is most severe in kittens.
  • Breeding queens should be vaccinated before mating to provide good early immunity in kittens through materally-derived antibody (MDA).


Do not administer a MLV FPV vaccine to pregnant cats or to kittens less than 6 weeks of age due to the risk of causing cerebellar hypoplasia in the unborn kittens.

Protocol

  • FPV vaccine is typically administered in combination with feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV) vaccines.
  • The initial vaccination series using the combination product should begin at 8 to 9 weeks of age, but not earlier than 6 weeks of age. The second dose should be administered 3 to 4 weeks later, and the final dose at as close to 16 weeks of age as possible. Where the risk of panleukopenia is high, it is currently recommended that a fourth dose should be considered at 18 to 20 weeks of age.
  • All parenteral FPV vaccines should be administered by the subcutaneous (SC) route. Intramuscular (IM) vaccination is not recommended.
  • A booster dose should be given approximately 1 year following the last dose in the initial series.
  • Subsequently, adult cats may be vaccinated with a single dose every 3 years.
  • For cats presented at 16 weeks of age, or older, an initial two-dose series (3 to 4 weeks apart) is recommended.
  • In kittens, subsequent doses in the initial series are recommended every 3 to 4 weeks until 16 weeks of age. Where the risk of exposure to unvaccinated cats is high, it is reasonable to administer a 4th dose between 18 and 20 weeks of age.
  • Regardless of age, an initial two dose series (3-4 weeks apart) is recommended.
  • A booster dose is recommended within 1 year following administration of the last dose in the initial series.
  • Subsequently, adult cats may be vaccinated with a single dose every 3 years. Doing so provides excellent, sustained protective immunity regardless of the product selected.
  • OVERDUE for BOOSTER VACCINATION: cats that have not received a booster inoculation within the past 3 years can be effectively boosted following administration of a single dose. It is not necessary to re-initiate a series of FPV vaccines in cats that are overdue for a booster.

Feline Herpesvirus-1 and Feline Calicivirus

  • Today, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) vaccine and feline calicivirus (FCV) are administered in combination as an FHV-1 + FCV vaccine. The FHV-1 + FCV combination is most commonly administered in combination with FPV, although a stand-alone 2-way product is also available in many countries. Additional vaccines (Chlamydia and FeLV) may also be combined with the FHV-1 + FCV + FPV vaccines depending on the manufacturer.
  • FHV-1 + FCV vaccines are available as modified-live (MLV) (also called attenuated) or killed (also called inactivated). MLV FHV-1 + FCV vaccines are available in some countries for parenteral and intranasal administration. These products are not interchangeable and must be administered in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendation.
  • All killed FHV-1 + FCV vaccines must be administered parenterally. Most, but not all, killed FHV-1 + FCV vaccines contain adjuvant.
  • It is recommended that MLV FHV-1 + FCV vaccines be administered within 1 hour following reconstitution or the dose should be discarded, regardless of the administration route.
  • Non-adjuvanted, MLV (attenuated) and adjuvant-containing inactivated (killed) FHV-1 vaccines are available for parenteral administration.
  • In some countries, intranasal FHV-1 + FCV vaccines are available. Intranasal vaccine may be administered into one or both nostrils. Intranasal vaccines provide both local and systemic immune responses; however mild upper respiratory disease signs may be seen following intranasal administration, particularly in kittens.
  • MLV (attenuated) FHV-1 vaccines are more immunogenic and induce less inflammation at the injection site compared to adjuvant-containing killed (inactivated) vaccines. When feasible, the use of a MLV FHV-1 + FCV vaccine is recommended.
  • FHV-1 + FCV vaccines, regardless of the vaccine type or administration route, induce a "non-sterile" immune response, ie vaccinated cats may still become infected if exposed and can shed virulent virus into the environment. Vaccinated cats are protected against developing severe clinical disease. Vaccination may not prevent development of a chronic carrier state.
  • Administration of an FHV-1 + FCV vaccine is indicated for all cats. All cats are potentially at risk of infection although clinical disease is most severe in kittens.
  • Breeding queens may be vaccinated prior to mating to boost antibody levels that will be passed to kittens during nursing (maternally derived antibody, or MDA).

Protocol

  • FHV-1 + FCV vaccines are typically administered in combination with feline panleukopenia virus vaccine.
  • All parenteral FHV-1 + FCV vaccines should be administered by the subcutaneous (SC) route. Intramuscular (IM) vaccination is not recommended.
  • The initial vaccination series using the combination product should begin at 8 to 9 weeks of age, but not earlier than 6 weeks of age. The second dose should be administered 3 to 4 weeks later, and the final dose at as close to 16 weeks of age as possible. Where the risk of panleukopenia is high, it is currently recommended that a fourth dose should be considered at 18 to 20 weeks of age.
  • A booster dose should be given approximately 1 year following the last dose in the initial series.
  • Subsequently, adult cats may be vaccinated with a single dose every 3 years.
  • For cats presented at 16 weeks of age, or older, an initial two-dose series (3 to 4 weeks apart) is recommended.
  • OVERDUE for BOOSTER VACCINATION: cats that have not received a booster inoculation within the past 3 years can be effectively boosted following administration of a single dose. It is not necessary to re-initiate a series of FHV-1 + FCV vaccines in cats that are overdue.
  • Dual-Strain Feline Calicivirus Vaccines : conventional FCV vaccines have utilized the F9 strain of FCV. However, there is evidence to support that emergent FCV strains are more prevalent today and that conventional FCV vaccines may not protect cats today as well as they did several years ago. Efforts to improve the immunogenicity of FCV vaccines have resulted in the manufacture of dual-strain FCV vaccines. At this time, 2 vaccines are available (distribution is limited). Each of the commercially available vaccines contains a unique combination of 2 feline caliciviruses. Both vaccines have been shown to provide a greater level of protection against a virulent calicivirus challenge compared to a conventional, single strain (F9) vaccine. However, studies assessing the comparative efficacy of the 2 dual-strain FCV vaccines have not been published.

Rabies (Lyssavirus)

  • Commercially available feline rabies vaccines are either adjuvanted, inactivated (killed) virus or non-adjuvanted, recombinant (virus vectored). Rabies vaccine may be sold as a 1-Year or a 3-Year product depending on the country of manufacture. Attenuated (modified-live virus) rabies vaccines are no longer available.
  • Vaccination requirements vary widely throughout the world. In countries deemed "rabies-free", administration of rabies vaccine may be restricted by law. Veterinarians are responsible for understanding and following applicable requirements/laws. The owner is responsible for complying with rabies vaccination requirements/laws.
  • Administration of rabies vaccine has been causally linked to tumorigenesis (feline injection-site sarcoma, or FISS) in some cats. World Small Animal Veterinary Association Vaccination Guidelines recommend against the use of adjuvant-containing (inactivated or killed) vaccines in cats to minimize the risk of tumor development.

Protocol

  • Where rabies immunization is required for cats, national, state, provincial, or municipal laws will dictate the earliest age rabies vaccine is to be administered. In most locations, rabies vaccine should not be administered to any cat less than 12 weeks of age.
  • A single dose of rabies vaccine administered as early as 12 weeks of age is generally considered to provide protective immunity by 28 to 30 days following administration of the initial dose.
  • Cats imported into rabies-free countries or regions of the world may be required to show evidence of a positive fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) titer prior to entry. The FAVN titer is only an indication of prior vaccination and is not considered to be index of protective immunity.
  • In the US and Canada, a rabies antibody titer is not considered a legal index of immunity in lieu of re-vaccination.
  • Cats older than 12 weeks only require a single dose.
  • Following administration of the first dose of rabies vaccine to a cat, a second dose should be administered within 1 year, regardless of the cat's age at the time the initial dose is administered.
  • Requirements dictating the intervals, and the type of vaccine used, for rabies re-vaccination is stipulated by the individual country (eg routine rabies vaccination of cats is not required in the UK).
  • Rabies vaccination can be given at the same time as routine vaccine protocols but vaccines must not be mixed in the same syringe.

Feline Leukemia

  • FeLV vaccines are available as either an adjuvanted, inactivated (killed) virus vaccines or as a non-adjuvanted, recombinant (virus vectored) vaccine. Inactivated vaccines may be either whole virus or sub-unit vaccines.
  • In contrast to adult cats, kittens less than 6 to 8 months of age are at greatest risk for developing progressive FeLV-related disease if exposed. Therefore, it is recommended that all kittens be vaccinated against FeLV.
  • Adult cats have less risk for developing progressive FeLV-related disease if infected. Vaccination of adult cats, therefore, is optional and should be based on known exposure risk.
  • All cats should be tested for FeLV prior to vaccination.
  • Administration of adjuvanted FeLV vaccine has been causally linked to tumorigenesis (feline injection-site sarcoma , or FISS) in some cats. World Small Animal Veterinary Association Vaccination Guidelines recommend against the use of adjuvant-containing (inactivated or killed) vaccines in cats to minimize the risk of tumor development.
  • Non-adjuvanated recombinant vaccines have been shown to produce significantly less inflammation at the vaccination site when compared to adjuvanted killed vaccines.

Protocol

  • Two initial doses, 3-4 weeks apart, of an FeLV vaccine are required to immunize, regardless of the vaccine type used. In kittens, the first dose should be administered not earlier than 8 to 9 weeks of age with second dose administered 3-4 weeks later (2 doses administered at 12 and 16 weeks is recommended). FeLV vaccine should be administered by the subcutaneous route.
  • A booster dose is recommended within 1 year following administration of the last dose in the initial series.
  • Subsequently, adult cats that have an on-going risk of exposure may be vaccinated with a single dose every 1-2 years, with the higher risk cats receiving annual boosters.
  • OVERDUE for BOOSTER VACCINATION: at risk cats that have not received a booster inoculation within the past 3 years may benefit from administration of 2-doses, 3-4 weeks apart.

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

  • A feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine is available as an adjuvanted, inactivated (killed) whole virus vaccine comprised of isolates from two FIV clades (A and D).
  • While the FIV vaccine contains clades A and D, the prevalence of individual clades varies by geographical region. In North America, clades A and B predominate with some clade C and F; in the UK, clade A predominates; and in Europe, clades A through D may be found with clade A predominant in northern Europe and clade B in southern Europe.
  • Efficacy of the FIV vaccine appears to be limited. Today, most authors, including the WSAVA Guidelines Group, do not recommend routine use of the FIV vaccine.
  • The FIV vaccine has not been shown to extend the duration/quality of life when evaluated in long-term studies of FIV infected cats.
  • If the veterinarian elects to vaccine a cat against FIV:
    • All vaccinates should be tested for FIV prior to vaccination.
    • The owner should be advised that vaccinated cats will have a positive FIV test on all commercial testing platforms. False positive test result can last for years. There is no laboratory serological test that will reliably distinguish between an infected vs. a vaccinated cat.
    • All vaccinates should be microchipped for positive identification and association with a medical record that can verify prior vaccination. (This is to avoid the risk of a vaccinated cat being tested, found to be "positive" for FIV, and unnecessarily euthanized.)
  • FIV is diagnosed in cats by detecting antibodies. The currently available tests cannot distinguish between antibodies induced by disease and those produced in response to vaccine. As a result, vaccinated cats may test positive for FIV for up to 4 years or more.
  • Additionally, kittens born of queens who have FIV or have been vaccinated for FIV, may receive FIV antibodies from colostrum (MDA). This may cause false positive test results until the cat is 5 to 6 months of age.
  • For all the above reasons, the FIV vaccine is generally not recommended, or is administered only to cats with a high risk of exposure (eg outdoor, intact males who are prone to fighting).

Protocol

  • When given, FIV vaccine is administered by the subcutaneous route, not earlier than 8 weeks of age.
  • Regardless of age, an initial three dose series (each dose 2-3 weeks apart) is required.
  • A booster dose is recommended within 1 year following administration of the last dose in the initial series.
  • Subsequently, adult cats that have an on-going high risk of exposure may be vaccinated with a single dose every year.

Chlamydophila felis (formerly called: Chlamydia psittaci variant felis)

  • Non-adjuvanted avirulent live bacteria and adjuvanted inactivated (killed) C felis vaccines are available for parenteral administration depending on the country. Avirulent live bacteria C felis vaccines are more immunogenic and less inflammatory than adjuvanted inactivated (killed) vaccines and, therefore, are recommended.
  • Regardless of the product used, C felis vaccines will not prevent infection or shedding (non-sterile immunity). Rather, vaccines reduce the severity of clinical signs once a cat becomes infected.
  • C felis vaccine is optional. Vaccination is indicated for cats known to have risk for exposure, and in those environments where the infection has been confirmed.
  • When C felis vaccine is given in combination with FPV, FHV-1 and FCV vaccine, an increased risk of post-vaccination reactions (lethargy, fever, anorexia, limb soreness) is expected.
  • Inadvertent ocular inoculation of avirulent live C felis vaccine may cause signs of conjunctivitis.

Protocol

  • Typically administered in combination with FPV, FHV-1, and FCV, C felis vaccines are administered not earlier than 8 weeks of age. All C felis vaccines should be administered by the subcutaneous route.
  • Avirulent, live bacterial vaccines should not be administered to cats concurrently receiving antibiotic therapy. Doing so may render the vaccine antigen inactive.
  • Regardless of age, an initial two dose series (3-4 weeks apart) is recommended.
  • Subsequently, adult cats that remain at risk of exposure may be vaccinated with a single dose every year.
  • OVERDUE for BOOSTER VACCINATION: at risk cats that have not received a booster inoculation within the past 2 years may benefit from administration of 2-doses 2-4 weeks apart.

Bordetella bronchiseptica

  • The feline Bordetella bronchiseptica ( B bronchiseptca ) vaccine is manufactured as an avirulent, live bacterial vaccine for intranasal administration only.
  • Feline B bronchiseptica vaccine is dispensed as a single dose vial and must be reconstituted prior to administration and should be used within 1 hour following reconstitution.
  • Vaccine indicated for intranasal administration MUST NOT BE ADMINISTERED PARENTERALLY.
  • Intranasal vaccine may be administered into one or both nostrils.
  • B bronchiseptica vaccine is optional and indicated for kittens/cats known to be at risk for exposure. All cats are potentially at risk of infection if exposed, however clinical disease is most severe in kittens.
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica may be transmitted between dogs and cats.
  • Cats vaccinated with B bronchiseptica vaccine may shed the vaccine strain bacteria for 6 weeks and, rarely, up to a year.

Protocol

  • B bronchiseptica vaccine may be administered to kittens as young as 4 weeks of age.
  • A single, initial dose is sufficient to immunize.
  • Avirulent, live bacterial vaccines should not be administered to cats concurrently receiving antibiotic therapy. Doing so may render the vaccine antigen inactive.
  • Annual revaccination is recommended in cats with sustained risk for exposure.
  • OVERDUE FOR VACCINATION. A single dose administered in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations is sufficient to immunize regardless of the time elapsed since the previous vaccination.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis

  • The feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) vaccine is manufactured as a modified-live virus vaccine for intranasal administration only.
  • FIP vaccine is dispensed as a single dose vial and must be reconstituted prior to administration and should be used within 1 hour following reconstitution.
  • Currently, the vaccine is only sold in the US, Canada, and Europe.
  • The vaccine is indicated for intranasal administration MUST NOT BE ADMINISTERED PARENTERALLY.
  • Intranasal vaccine may be administered into one or both nostrils.
  • The FIP vaccine is intended to prevent infection by the feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) which is a precursor to FIP. However, the vaccine is labelled for administration to cats 16 weeks of age and older. However, kittens housed in densely populated environments are at risk of exposure to FECV during first few weeks of life.
  • Efficacy of the FIP vaccine appears to be limited. Today, most authors, including the WSAVA Guidelines Group, do not recommend routine use of the FIP vaccine.
  • Optional: if the decision is made to administer the vaccine, the individual cat should be tested for FECV antibodies prior to vaccination. Cats that are FCoV negative at the time of initial vaccination may derive some benefit from vaccination.

Protocol

  • FIP vaccine may be administered to kittens as young as 16 weeks of age.
  • Regardless of age, an initial two dose series (3-4 weeks apart) is recommended.
  • A booster dose is recommended within 1 year following administration of the last dose in the initial series.
  • Subsequently, annual revaccination is recommended in cats with sustained risk for exposure.

Virulent Systemic (Hypervirulent) Feline Calicivirus

  • VS-FCV vaccine is an adjuvanted, inactivated dual-strain product dispensed in single dose vials which must be reconstituted prior to administration.
  • Currently, the vaccine is only available to veterinarians practicing in North America.
  • Earlier studies demonstrated that individual outbreaks VS-FCV infection involved a novel mutation of FCV. Today, it is unknown whether the VS-FCV vaccine, made from early isolates, will be efficacious against future VS-FCV outbreaks.
  • Outbreaks of VS-FCV are rare and primarily occur in shelters and high-density multi-cat environments. Infections appear to be self-limiting, do not lead to development of a carrier state, and therefore appear not to have spread into the general cat population.
  • The VS-FCV vaccine is also marketed as a "Dual-Strain" FCV vaccine intended to provide a broader level of protection against FCV strains threatening cats today. (See also: Dual-Strain Feline Calicivirus Vaccines (above)).
  • The value of administering both a conventional FCV vaccine and the VS-FCV vaccine in protecting cats against other, emerging strains of respiratory FCV has been suggested but has not been demonstrated.

Protocol

  • VS-FCV vaccine may be administered to kittens as young as 8 weeks of age.
  • Regardless of age, an initial two dose series (3-4 weeks apart) is recommended.
  • A booster dose is recommended within 1 year following administration of the last dose in the initial series.
  • Subsequently, annual revaccination is recommended in cats with sustained risk for exposure.
  • OVERDUE FOR VACCINATION: at risk cats that have not received a booster inoculation within the past 2 years may benefit from administration of 2-doses 3-4 weeks apart.

Dermatophytosis ("Ringworm")

  • Both monovalent ( M canis ) and pentavalent vaccines for the prevention and treatment of feline dermatophytoses have been manufactured and sold in North America and Europe. Lack of demonstrated efficacy ultimately led to removal of the monovalent vaccine from the North American market, although the product is still sold in South America and Europe. A pentavalent dermatophytosis vaccine manufactured in Germany is available today in some European countries.
  • Because there is limited evidence of any benefit for treating dermatophytosis and little evidence of efficacy in preventing infection, the dermatophytosis vaccine is generally not recommended.
  • Studies have been published that document reduction of skin lesions, compared to non-vaccinates, among cats receiving the pentavalent vaccine. However, concerns among dermatologist are that vaccine-associated "treatment" of skin lesion can give the appearance of effective management of the infection without regard for the persistence of infectious spores on a cat's hair coat or within the cat's environment (eg bedding).
  • Because of the limited efficacy and lack of challenge studies on the use of these vaccines, routine vaccination of cats against dermatophytoses is not generally recommended.

Protocol

  • Among cats selected for vaccination, three initial doses, administered at 2 week intervals (0, 14, and 28 days), by the intramuscular route, are recommended.
  • Subsequently, annual revaccination is recommended by the manufacturer in cats with sustained risk for exposure.

Further reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed .
  • Ford R B (2013) Feline injection-site sarcoma: Then & now. Today's Vet Pract 3 , 64-68.
  • Ford R B (2013) 2013 Feline Vaccination Guidelines: Key points for veterinary practitioners. Today's Vet Pract 3 , 68-73.
  • Ford R B (2013) Vaccination of cats against infectious upper respiratory disease. Today's Vet Pract 3, 55-59.
  • DiGangi B A, Levy J K, Griffin B, Reese M J, Dingman P A, Tucker S J et al (2012)Effects of maternally-derived antibodies on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens. J Feline Med Surg 14 , 118-123 PubMed .
  • Meyer A, Kershaw O & Klopfleisch R (2011)Feline calicivirus-associated virulent systemic disease: not necessarily a local epizootic problem. Vet Rec 168 , 589 PubMed .
  • Westhoff D, Orveillon F X, Farnow D, Klös M C & Elbers K (2010)Safety of a non-adjuvanted therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of feline dermatophytosis. Vet Rec 167 , 899-903 PubMed .
  • Jas D, Aeberle C, Lacombe V, Guiot A L & Poulet H (2009) Onset of immunity in kittens after vaccination with a non-adjuvanted vaccine against feline panleucopenia, feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus. Vet J 182 , 86-93 PubMed .
  • Lappin M R, Veir J & Hawley J (2009) Feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus-1, and feline calicivirus antibody responses in seronegative specific pathogen-free cats after a single administration of two different modified live FVRCP vaccines. J Feline Med Surg 11 , 159-162 PubMed .
  • Addie D, Poulet H, Golder M C et al (2008)Ability of antibodies to two new caliciviral vaccine strains to neutralise feline calicivirus isolates from the UK. Vet Rec 163 , 355-357 PubMed .
  • Mouzin D, Lorenzen M, Haworth J & King V (2004) Duration of serologic response to three viral antigens in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224 , 61-66 PubMed .
  • Dawson S, Willoughby K, Gaskell R M, Wood G & Chalmers W S (2001) A field trial to assess the effect of vaccination against feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus and feline panleucopenia virus in 6-week-old kittens. J Feline Med Surg 3 , 17-22 PubMed .

Other sources of information

  • Gaskell R M, Dawson S and Radford A D (2012) Feline respiratory diseases. In: Greene C (ed) Infectious diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th edn. St. Louis: Elsevier, Saunders, p 151-162.
  • Greene C E and Levy J K (2012) Immunoprophylaxis. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. St Louis: Saunders-Elsevier, pp 1163-1205.
  • Day M J and Schultz R D (2011) Vaccination. In: Veterinary immunology-Principles and Practice. London: Mason Publishing, pp 192-202.
  • The Compendium on Animal Rabies Prevention and Control-2011, available at:
    http://www.nasphv.org/Documents/RabiesCompendium.pdf
    or, Google "Rabies Compendium 2011".

Vaccination Guidelines

  • 2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel Report. J Feline Med Surg 15 , 785-808. Also available online at: www.catvets.com (Search: Guidelines).
  • Lutz H, Addie D, Belak S, Boucraut-Baralon C, Egberink H, Frymus T et al (2009)Feline leukaemia ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 11 , 565-574 PubMed .
  • Day M J, Horzinek M C, and Schultz R D (2010) Guidelines for the Vaccination of Dogs and Cats (compiled by the Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA)). Available online at: www.wsava.org (Search: Guidelines). Accessed December 2014.
  • European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases: Vaccination Guidelines (2012), available at: http://www.abcd-vets.org/Guidelines/Pages/en-1201-Feline_Infectious_Peritonitis-Vaccination.aspx . Accessed December 2014.

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